land kabza or illegal occupation of land of an nri!


What is “Land Kabza”?

“Land kabza” is a term used in India which refers to illegal occupation or encroachment of land by individuals or groups without proper authorization. It typically involves occupying someone else’s land without their consent or without following legal procedures. This can be a contentious issue, often leading to disputes and legal actions to reclaim the land. The issue of land kabza is often associated with issues of land ownership, property rights, and sometimes political or social conflicts. It has been seen that the NRIs are at the receiving end in most cases pertaining to illegal occupation of land as they are unable to be physically present in India to carry out regular inspection of their properties and as result unscrupulous elements present in our society take advantage of the said situation.

Difficulties faced by the NRI’s in case of illegal occupation of their land/property.

➤ In the case of joint properties, it has been seen in certain cases that the possession of the entire property is illegally  taken by one of the co-owner/s without giving the share of the concerned NRI or without specifying the share of the concerned NRI.

➤In the case of illegal occupation by the tenant, it has been seen  in majority of the cases that the NRIs who have given their properties on rent, face extreme difficulty in getting the property vacated as the tenant refuses to pay the rent or vacate the property.

➤In the case of illegal encroachment, it has been seen in certain cases that the possession of the property of an NRI is taken by the accused person by way of forging the documents of the concerned property.

Legal remedies available:-

Firstly a police complaint can be filed with the local police station against the accused person and also the complaint can be filed with the Superintendent of Police or Senior Superintendent of Police. This complaint can be filed by an NRI himself or through his power of attorney/ advocate.

Secondly, if after the filing of the police complaint, no action is taken by the police against the accused then a Criminal Complaint can be filed by an NRI through his power of attorney/advocate with the NRI COMMISION PUNJAB  with a prayer for directing the concerned police officials to take legal action against the accused.

Thirdly a criminal complaint can be filed before the Magistrate. A complaint according to Section 2(d) of the Cr.P.C. is an allegation made to the Magistrate in writing or verbal form which mentions the offence committed by a person (whether known or unknown) and does not include a police report.

In layman’s language, it is simply the written allegations of the complainant and contains a summary of facts of the matter/case that he/she seeks to present before the judge, and the relief that he/she seeks for the same.

➤In the case of joint properties, Civil suits can be filed in the civil court of competent jurisdiction. Different types of civil suits can be filed depending upon the nature of relief sought.

  • Suit for injunction.
  • Suit for possession.
  • Suit for declaration.
  • Suit for partition.

In the case of illegal occupation by the tenant, firstly a legal notice can be sent  by the NRI through their advocate  to the tenant for eviction and recovery of arrears.

Secondly, a civil suit can be filed in the civil court in whose jurisdiction the property in question is located.

  • Suit for eviction and recovery of arrears.


It is extremely important for the NRI’s to stay aware and vigilant regarding their properties and rights arising out of those properties. Timely inspection of the properties must be carried out by the NRI’’s themselves or through their power of attorney and in case of any illegality being carried out by any person wrt the concerned property, timely legal action must be taken.

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